TERMS OF REFERENCE
Gap Analysis on Crime Prevention and Response
Interventions in CARICOM
World University Service of Canada (WUSC) is a leading Canadian international development organization whose mission is to foster human development and global understanding through education and training. WUSC manages the implementation of the Field Support Services Project (FSSP) in the Caribbean, funded by Global Affairs Canada (GAC). The FSSP-C aims to ensure the quality and relevance of Canada’s support in responding to the Government of Canada’s Caribbean Regional Development Program (CRDP).
With increasing calls from Caribbean leaders for the international community to further engage with them in addressing the crime situation in the region, Global Affairs Canada, through the FSSP-C, requires the services of a consultancy team to examine the current state of crime in CARICOM Member States in the region and conduct a gap analysis on crime prevention and response interventions. The assessment will look at rates of crime per type, trends, demographic distribution etc., review the main existing and planned interventions by governments, donors, partner organizations and NGOs to address the issue and identify the key gaps when it comes to crime prevention and response.
While the crime situation varies among countries, surveys and available statistical data show that crime is a pervasive and pressing issue throughout the Caribbean region, with increasingly higher rates of violent crime, drug trafficking and gang activity. Countries such as Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago are facing some of the highest murder rates in the world, as well as a prevalence of youth and gender-based violence.
More than 10 years ago, an average of 40 percent of the Caribbean population identified crime and security-related issues as the overarching problem facing their countries, even more so than poverty or inequality. In several Caribbean countries, crime has risen sharply since then, with homicide rates often more than doubling.
Though rates of domestic and gender-based violence have long been extremely high in the region, security threats continue to escalate in many countries of the Caribbean and consistently pose a challenge to sustainable development. Crime, in all its forms but specifically violent crime, creates uncertainty and fear within societies and inhibits citizens’ capacities in the production of goods and services that optimally build and benefit their society.
Despite various efforts by Caribbean countries, with support from regional and international partners to address the problem, crime remains a significant challenge threatening the safety and security of citizens, undermining social and economic development and eroding public trust in law enforcement and judicial institutions.
In addition to crimes at the national levels, CARICOM governments and agencies are challenged to address transnational criminal elements – including for example the trafficking of illicit drugs, firearms, and humans – and coordinate across borders. Caribbean leaders have been increasingly raising their challenges in dealing with crime in all its forms and recently (April 2023), CARICOM heads of governments joined a broad range of stakeholders including police commissioners, academics, religious and non-governmental organizations and crime experts to examine the crime problem in the region and look at it as a public health issue that needs to be tackled using a comprehensive approach that includes prevention and is not only focused on the traditional criminal justice approach of retribution, imprisonment, rehabilitation and restoration.
Canada’s involvement to date:
Canada has been a steadfast ally in the Caribbean region, providing multifaceted support to address the pressing issue of crime. Recognizing the far-reaching implications of crime on both social and economic stability, and noting the absence of a concerted whole-of-governments approach to addressing crime in the region, Canada has – to date – delivered critical support to the region along a range of diplomatic, capacity building, relationship management, and legislative efforts. This has included, but is not limited to, significant efforts to advance the capacity of security institutions (including law enforcement, military, and intelligence) across the region to counter crime in all its forms; efforts to strengthen judicial, legislative, and criminal justice systems; and efforts to promote effective community crime prevention strategies, underscoring its commitment to fostering safer communities in the Caribbean. Below is an illustration of some of the support provided to date through some of Canada’s intervention modalities:
Canada’s development program:
Through its Caribbean Regional Development Program (CRDP), Canada has emphasized the importance of strengthening the justice systems in the Caribbean by improving access to justice, reducing court case backlogs, and promoting greater transparency and accountability in the judicial process. In this regard, Canada has funded multiple security and justice sector reforms over the last three decades. These included specific development projects such as JURIST, IMPACT Justice, JUST, CSJP and the new Social Justice project (So-JUST). Canada’s support to justice reform has focussed on strengthening and improving access to justice by supporting the legal framework, legal services delivery, restorative justice, alternative dispute resolution systems formation and court modernization through judicial training, public engagement, knowledge management and technology.
Canada’s regional security policy and programming:
The Foreign Policy and Diplomacy Service (FPDS) provides regional and country-specific information and analysis to inform security programming design and delivery and maintains relationships with partner governments and organizations on the ground such as CARICOM IMPACS and the Regional Security System (RSS). Heads of Mission and colleagues in the field participate in project activities and assessing the impact of Canada’s contributions. Canada’s security programming includes a variety of Global Affairs Canada (GAC) actors as well as other government departments such as the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), National Defence, and Correctional Services Canada. Examples of ongoing programming include:
- The Anti-Crime Capacity Building Program (ACCBP) at GAC aims to strengthen the capacity of beneficiary states to prevent and respond to threats posed by transnational criminal activity, particularly within security sector institutions. The ACCBP provides flexible programming that builds operational skills, increases knowledge and awareness, supports domestic and regional coordination in the Caribbean, and increases knowledge sharing amongst institutions and agencies. The Program highlights Canadian values, pools Canadian security expertise, increases Canadian security and promotes foreign policy objectives in the Caribbean.
Through the ACCBP, Canada currently supports the implementation of twenty (20) projects with activities in the Caribbean region, valued at a total of CAD $43.3M, with capacity building efforts focusing on targeting illicit drugs, firearms proliferation, trafficking in persons and migrant smuggling, money laundering, border security to combat illicit trafficking, cybersecurity and cybercrime, and security system reform. Through ACCBP programming, Canada has – among other efforts – helped interdict the flow of illicit narcotics and firearms to and through the region, reduced impunity for corruption and other crimes, countered cybercrime and online sexual exploitation, and increased maritime security.
- RCMP: The RCMP Liaison Office works in close collaboration with the various police forces in the Caribbean and other international partners as well as the Prosecutors’ Office on different joint investigations against transnational organized crime organizations operating in the region and with direct links to Canada. The operational spectrum of these organizations is vast and versatile with illegal activities such as child exploitation, drugs and human trafficking, money laundering, terrorist financing and a multitude of other Criminal Code offences. In addition to these operational investigations, the RCMP exchanges best practices with the various policing partners in the region and, in partnership with GAC, provides training and capacity building support to police officers in the Caribbean region. Recently, it provided training on Drug Investigation and Major Case Management.
The purpose of this analysis is to inform discussions/decisions on the role that Canada can play to help further address, at the national and regional levels, the increasing crime levels in the Caribbean. In keeping with the desire to look at this issue in a comprehensive way, the analysis specifically aims to identify the gaps and provide recommendations in relation to:
- Crime prevention: This refers to interventions designed to address the main risk factors associated with criminal behavior and prevent crime, including domestic and gender-based violence, before it occurs. This could include youth outreach programs designed to provide alternatives for at-risk youth to steer them away from criminal involvement; community or school-based initiatives designed to educate students about the consequences of crime and teach them conflict resolutions skills; public awareness campaigns designed to educate the population about crime prevention strategies, including reporting suspicious activities; community policing programs designed to build trust and promote open communication between residents and law enforcement; vocational training and job opportunities to disenfranchised populations; etc.
- Crime deterrence and response: This refers to interventions, usually within the judicial and law enforcement systems, designed to stop/punish existing criminal activities and reduce future crimes through deterrence. These would include activities designed to build capacities of law enforcement and prosecutors, foster partner relationships for better investigations, strengthen legislative approaches, resource law enforcement, prosecution, and punish criminal activities. It could also include programs that support the rehabilitation and reintegration of offenders back into society, and including any information on gender-responsive interventions
4. SCOPE OF SERVICES
In the context of this assignment, the Consultancy team will perform the following activities:
- Conduct a comprehensive desk review of the crime situation in the CARICOM countries (except Haiti) to analyze crime rates per type, trends, geographical distribution and capture national and regional best practices that address crime in a comprehensive way.
- Identify/map existing mechanisms to address security governance and collaboration within the region and the key crime prevention, deterrent and response interventions being implemented (or planned), in CARICOM countries, by Governments, Development Partners and Civil Society organisations, including any gender-responsive interventions. Where possible, identify the results achieved through these interventions (N.B. The Consultant will not conduct an evaluation of these interventions but if evaluations exist, the consultant will use them to inform the analysis and recommendations).
- Conduct key informant interviews, and/or focus groups with key stakeholders in order to better understand the context, existing interventions and help identify gaps. The key informants and stakeholders could include other donors working in the sector, members of the judicial system (e.g. Caribbean Court of Justice, Judges, Resident Magistrates, Parish Court Judges, Ministers of Justice, Court personnel, Attorneys General, legislative draftspersons etc.), members of the law enforcement community (Police Commissioners and Officers), corrections services, and regional entities (CARICOM, IMPACS and RSS), relevant members of civil society and businesses.
- Based on the analysis, interviews and discussions, identify gaps in the national and regional crime prevention deterrent and response interventions, highlighting areas where additional resources, new types of interventions, capacity-building, or policy reform may be needed.
- Based on the identified gaps and Canada’s intervention modalities provide recommendations for prevention, deterrence and response for Canada’s consideration. When considering Canada’s intervention modalities, the Consultancy team will consider all existing programming mechanisms, e.g. the CRDP, the ACCBP, PSOPS, RCMP, DND as well as Canada’s policy engagement/advocacy role at the various missions.
5. CONSULTANCY TEAM PROFILE
This Gap Analysis on Crime Prevention and Response Interventions assignment can be conducted by either a consulting firm with a qualified team, or a team of qualified individuals, who can provide a comprehensive review of key factors in the assignment including but not limited to: gender, youth, role of society, criminal justice systems, etc. in the countries/contexts within the region. The Team should comprise at a minimum, a Team Leader and an expert on Crime and Security. The Team should have the following education, experience, abilities, knowledge and skills:
The Team Leader should possess:
- At least a Master’s Degree from an accredited, recognized institution in a relevant discipline such as Criminology, Global Crime, Justice and Security, Criminal Justice, Criminal and Social Justice, Public Policy, Criminal Law, Sociology, Anthropology or other related fields.
The Team Members should possess:
- At least an Undergraduate degree from an accredited, recognized institution in a relevant discipline such as Criminology, Crime and Security, Criminal Justice, Criminal and Social Justice, Public Policy, Criminal Law, Sociology, International Development, or other related fields.
The Team Leader should possess:
- Minimum of ten (10) years professional experience working in the Crime, Security and/or criminal justice sector regionally, or internationally with at least three (3) years of specific experience in the Caribbean.
- Demonstrated experience providing technical advice and critical analysis to inform national and/or regional strategies on crime prevention for either national government, regional organizations or development organizations (i.e., bilateral donors, NGOs, multilateral organizations).
- Demonstrated experience working with international partners in crime prevention, criminal justice and/or related fields including youth-focused interventions.
- Demonstrated experience in the design and implementation of comprehensive crime prevention strategies, interventions and regional security policy and programming
- Strong analytical skills and demonstrated experience in data collection (quantitative and qualitative) and analysing data from multiple key stakeholders, identifying trends and gaps and providing relevant and practical advice on actionable interventions.
- Knowledge of and access to a network of key stakeholders in Canada and internationally who would be able to provide technical assistance in crime prevention
The Team Members should possess:
- At least five (5) years professional experience working in the field of crime, security, justice or related fields in the Caribbean.
- Experience providing technical, practical advice and critical analyses to inform national and/or regional strategies on crime prevention for either national government, regional organizations or development organizations (i.e., bilateral donors, NGOs, multilateral organizations).
- Demonstrated experience in working with international partners in the design and implementation of comprehensive crime prevention strategies, criminal justice and/or related fields especially youth-focussed interventions in the Caribbean
- Good analytical skills and demonstrated experience in data collection (interview, focus groups, needs assessments, etc.) and analysing data from multiple key stakeholders, identifying trends and gaps and providing relevant and practical advice on actionable interventions.
- Knowledge of and access to a network of key stakeholders, including the donor community in the Caribbean region in the crime, justice and security sector
- Knowledge of and experience working in gender-based violence, youth-at-risk crime prevention, security and justice initiatives (local / national / regional).
Knowledge and Skills
- Understanding of societal and cultural influences and the impacts it has on crime and security
- Extensive knowledge of the Caribbean’s crime and security threats, risks and challenges, and opportunities including those related to youth and gender-based violence
- Sound understanding of comprehensive crime prevention strategies (including legislative, policy and social) internationally and in the Caribbean
- Understanding of gender-responsive approaches and strategies to crime prevention and deterrence
- Excellent writing skills, with the ability to analyse, compile and synthesize information in coherent and succinct formats and effectively communicate technical knowledge, advice, and results in a clear and concise manner for non-experts.
6. LANGUAGE OF WORK
English is the working language for this assignment. All deliverables must be provided in English and in MS Word.
7. DELIVERABLES AND EXPECTED LEVEL OF EFFORT
This assignment has an approximate level of effort of 43 days from the period August 1 to December 1, 2023.
|Ref no.||Deliverable||Activities||Approximate Level of Effort|
|Initial Meeting to review TORs and agree on deliverables||.5|
|1||Inception Report and Detailed Work Plan||Initial reading and prepare a report to include approach, timetable of activities, planned outreach methods and indicative list of contacts.||2.5|
|2||Submission of a Report Outline to cover the objectives of the assignment||Comprehensive desk review of the crime situation in the CARICOM countries (except Haiti) to analyze crime rates per type, trends, geographical distribution and capture national and regional best practices that address crime in a comprehensive way. Include gender-responsive interventions||7|
|Identify/map existing mechanisms to address security governance and collaboration within the region and the key crime prevention, deterrent and response interventions being implemented (or planned), in CARICOM countries, by Governments, Development Partners and Civil Society organizations.||7|
|3||Submission of Guide Questions for interviews/ focus groups with key stakeholders||Identify initial list of key stakeholders from across the CaribbeanDevelop/revise interview questions with input from GACConduct key informant interviews, and/or focus groups with key stakeholders to better understand the context, existing interventions and help identify gaps.||10|
|4||Draft Report – To include: an analysis of crime review across the region, including gender-responsive initiatives; a mapping of existing/planned interventions or projects in the sector; a gap analysis and recommendations for crime prevention deterrence and response interventions Power point presentation of report to GAC||Identify gaps in the national and regional crime prevention deterrent and response interventions, highlighting areas where additional resources, new types of interventions, capacity-building, or policy reform may be needed.Recommend prevention, deterrence and response interventions based on the gap analysis and Canada’s intervention modalities for Canada’s consideration.Present conclusion and recommendations to GAC||10|
|5||Revised and Final Report including stand-alone power point||Finalize report based on comments/ feedback from GAC. Update power point as a stand alone tool of the study results||6|
8. WORK LOCATION AND TRAVEL
The consultant team will work remotely from their own facilities. Necessary travel may be proposed by the team after a desk review of necessary background documents and when developing the work plan. These should be approved by GAC prior to travel.
9. Procurement Process
This consultancy is open to all suitably qualified CARICOM and international firms or teams of consultants. Firms or teams are invited to submit an expression of interest. Submissions should include the curriculum vitae of all persons proposed as the team who will undertake the assignment. Only those firms that meet the consultant team profile will be short-listed teams and contacted through their identified Team Leader. No telephone calls please.
Interested firms or teams should send an expression of interest and curriculum vitae for each team member by August 10, 2023 to [email protected] Please indicate “FSSP Caribbean – Crime Prevention and Response” as the subject line of your email.
 Except Haiti
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